Yo-yo syndrome

A yo-yo phenomenon refers to a cyclical loss and gain of weight. As the muscle mass in the body decreases and that of fat increases, the BMR decreases. This cycle results in tendency to fatigue even with consistent food consumption.

Yo-yo syndrome = muscle loss, fat gain
Weight change within 5 years after weight loss
The Basal Metabolism,
Minimum energy
required to sustain life
The Basal Metabolism

The basal metabolism is a turnover of energy for vital cellular activities such as breathing, blood circulation, digestion, and maintenance of body temperature. It normally composes 60 to 75% of total energy consumption.

Why skinny friends
does not gain weight?

Forced starvation will slow down metabolism in order to balance energy within your body. The body will use muscle for energy, while storing fat instead of burning it. This is why you will end up more likely to gain weight when you starve yourself on diet.

Low/no tendency to gain weight
(High BMR)
Because of basic metabolism!
High tendency to gain weight
(Low BMR)
“Decreased basal metabolism by age”

In addition, it becomes easy to get older with age after middle age, because basic metabolic rate decreases due to changes in body composition (increase in body fat, decrease in muscle), and even if the same amount of food is consumed, surplus energy accumulates in fat.

What about my basal metabolism?
Harris Benedict equation
What is the calorie of food I eat?

Peanut (100g)

575 kcal

Banana (120g)

81 kcal

Apple (300g)

150 kcal

Mandarin (100g)

47 kcal

Soy milk (150ml)

130 kcal

Rice(steamed) (100g)

300 kcal

Stirred fried rice

575 kcal

Fried dumpling

630 kcal

Chocolate cake

437 kcal


102 kcal

Beer (600ml)

215 kcal

Coke (250ml)

100 kcal

Chocolate (25g)

135 kcal

Big Mac

530 kcal


250 kcal


201 kcal

YES to a healthy diet! NO to a yo-yo syndrome!

1. Calorie restriction

You cannot maintain excessive calories restriction for a long time. Calorie restriction differs individually depending on body conditions.

2. Fat and Sugar Intake Restrictions

Fat is consumed within 25% of total calories. Minimize saturated / trans fat intake!

Excessive carbohydrate intake may increase triglyceride synthesis. Make sure you control carbs intake between 50 to 60 %.

3. Protein

Make sure to take 1.0 to 1.5 g of protein / kg body weight to prevent protein deficiency during diet!

4. Sufficient vitamin minerals intake

Avoid vitamins/mineral deficiency.

If you eat less than 1200 kcal per day, it’s healthy for you to take vitamin and mineral supplements

5. Exercise at least 30 minutes every day!

* Move as much as possible to increase physical activity. In the long run, it is important to make ‘a habit of consuming calories’ by increasing the amount of physical activity in everyday life!

6. Breakfast is essential !

If you skip breakfast during diet, you will end up with more often hunger signals, reduced energy consumption, and chance of overeating.